Diabetes is collection of diseases that affect how the body uses sugar (glucose). It interferes with the regulation of energy to the body’s muscles and brain. People who have unregulated diabetes have too much sugar in their blood. Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are chronic diseases that if untreated can lead to bodily injury and death.
The pancreas secrets the hormone insulin and the amount of insulin secreted controls the blood sugar levels. Insulin enables glucose to be absorbed by the cell. It is the primary factor in the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
What are the Differences Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 1 is the most serious of the two, and more difficult to regulate. Diagnosis occurs earlier in life, and is sometimes called insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset diabetes. In these individuals the pancreas does not make insulin. Individuals must inject themselves with insulin in order to survive. Modern insulin pumps help to improve the blood glucose regulation in Type 1 individuals.
Hypoglycemia occurs when a person injects too much insulin in relation to the amount of blood glucose. When this happens glucose levels drop, the brain doesn’t get enough sugar, and the person passes out. If not treated quickly, the person could die.
Hyperglycemia occurs when the sugar levels remain too high for an extended period of time. In this case a person with Type 1 diabetes does not get enough insulin on a regular basis. The individual experiences ketoacidosis that leads to a diabetic coma, and death.
In Type 2 diabetics, the pancreas either secretes too little insulin or the body becomes resistant to insulin. It generally occurs later in life, and is called adult-onset diabetes. This type of diabetes can be treated with diet, exercise and oral medication. In these individuals, hyperglycemia occurs more often than hypoglycemia.
Both types of diabetes lead to long-term complications. Hyperglycemia leads to kidney disease. Individuals are more prone to heart disease, stroke and circulation problems. They also suffer nerve and eye damage.
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